The concluding lecture presents how the four cultural regions were part of a world system that effectively inter-connected distant regions, often encompassing ’landed’ and/or ‘hydro’ connections. By the thirteenth century, these inter-connected regions included substantially large areas—inherently removed from each other, but almost always related via ‘accessible’ networks of trade and exchange, which began at the peripheries and displayed relevance as these elements of interaction moved towards at the center. By the eighteenth century, the political fragmentation of the once global world caused these inter-connections to fall into the background, once sea-based connection eclipsed land connections (early 1700s - twentieth century), and eventually air-routes, and now cyber-lines bind the globe.
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